Networking – Introduction

CtechF - Netwoking

Networking guide for Beginners (Basic guide)

What is Networking?

A network consists of two or more computers that are attached in order to share files, software, devices, or allow communication.

1) Basic Components required for Data Communication.

CtechF - Netwoking

2) Data Transmission Modes

  • Simplex Mode.
  • Half-duplex mode.
  • Duplex mode.

2.1) Simplex Mode

Data is transmitted from the sender to the receiver (only).

CtechF - Netwoking - Simplex

Ex: watching televisions, getting printouts, radio

2.2) Half-duplex Mode

Data transmitted to one direction at a time.

CtechF - Netwoking - Half-duplex

Ex: Walkie-talkie

2.3) Full-duplex mode

Data is transmitted to both sides at the same time.

CtechF - Netwoking - Duplex

Ex: Telephone conversation

3) Types of network

  • LAN (Local Area Network)
  • MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
  • WAN (Wide Area Network)

LAN: A Local Area Network connect computers inside a room or several rooms in a building.

ex: School lab, small scale business

MAN: A Metropolitan Area Network covers larger geographical areas.

ex: large business, cities.

WAN: Wide Area network connect larger geographic area such as the Internet.

ex: university network, internet.

CtechF - Netwoking - wan

4) Network topology

The type of typologies are,

  • Physical Topology.
  • Logical Topology.

4.1) The physical Topology

  • Bus Topology
  • Star Topology.
  • Ring Topology.
  • Tree Topology.
  • Mase Topology.

4.1.1) Bus Topology

All the connection are established through a main called backbone because any issue with the network affect all the computer in the network.


  • Easy to connect.
  • Request fewer cables.


  • Entire network shutdown if there is a break down in the backbone.
  • Difficult to identify the problem. (if the entire system shutdown)

4.1.2) Star Topology

A star topology is commonly used design and built by centralizing a switch or hub and computer.

CtechF - Netwoking - star_topology


  • easy to install and wire.
  • Easy to identify the problems and easy to remove parts.


  • Require more cable.
  • More expensive than bus topology.

4.1.3) Ring Topology

A computer is positioned in a ring/bangle and connected through cables. Data or information move in a circular manner

CtechF - Netwoking - ring_topology


  • The breakdown of one computer or cable can lead to the breakdown of the entire network.


  • Easy to configure.
  • Require fewer cables.

4.1.4) Tree Topology


  • Point to point wiring for individual segments


  • If the backbone breaks, the entire network goes down.
  • More difficult to configure.

4.1.5) Mash Topology

All the computers in the network are connected with each other.


  • Difficult to control.
  • It is costly.


  • A breakdown of one computer does not affect the connections in the network.

4.2) Logical Typologies

  • Ethernet.
  • Local talk.
  • Token ring.
  • FDDI.
  • ATM.

4.2.1) Ethernet

Ethernet uses an access method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collison Detection).

4.2.2) Local talk

LocalTalk is developed by Apple Computer Inc. the method uses by LocalTalk is called CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collison Avoidance).

5) Transmission Media

Basic types of transmission media,

  • Guided/Wired.
    • Twisted pair
      • Unshielded Twisted pair (UTP) cable.
      • Shielded Twisted pair (STP) cable
    • Coaxial cable.
    • Optical Fiber.
  • Unguided/wireless.
    • Radio Waves.
    • Microwaves.
    • Infrared.

5.1) Guided / Wired

5.1.1) Twisted Pair

# Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

UTP is generally the best option for small networks. It is suitable for a maximum of 100 meters.

# Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable

STP is better quality and secure data transmission medium, it’s expensive.

5.1.2) Coaxial Cable

    Ex: TV antenna, CCTV

5.1.3) Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cabling of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials. It transmits light rather electronic signals eliminating the problem of electric materials. it’s  more difficult to install and modify.

5.2) Unguided / Wireless Media

Data is transmitted as a signal through the air without using physical medium is called unguided media.

5.2.1) Radio waves

Data transmission is performed using radio waves.

Ex: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth

5.2.2) Microwaves

Microwaves are used in Satellite communication to transmit data as a transponder. It travels in a linear. Transmission center is positioned facing each other.

5.2.3) Infrared

Ex: TV remote controllers, wireless keyboard and mouse.

6) Network devices

CtechF - Netwoking - network device

6.1) Network Interface Device (NIC)

CtechF - Netwoking - network card

A NIC is a printed circuit board. NIC has an RJ45 port and is built into modern computers. In this port, NIC was a separate code to be plugged to the motherboard.

6.2) HUB

CtechF - Netwoking - network_hub/switch

Hubs concentrate on connections. Hubs send the transmitted data to all computers. It may create unnecessary network data congestion. In data transmission, the hub uses half-duplex mode.

6.3) Switch

CtechF - Netwoking - network_hub/switch

A concentrate is a device that provides a central connection point for cables from workstations, servers, and peripherals. The switch can identify the part and IP. The switch sends data to the relevant computer only. It uses full duplex.

6.4) Routers

CtechF - Netwoking - network_router

A router translation from one network to another, it’s similar to a bridge. Routers select the best path to route a message, based on the destination address and origin.

6.5) Modem

This is called MOdulation and DEModulation. Hence, ‘MODEM’ is a combination of these two words.

6.6) Firewall

Firewall is network security. Instruction to control the data and instruction transmission between internet and computer network system built into the systems.

7) Benefits of Networking

  • Data and information can be shared between computer.
  • Ability to share resources, such as printers, scanners, and modem.
  • Ability to control central software.
  • Security. (Password protection)

8) Disadvantages of Networking

  • Possible security issues, such as hacking.
  • Virus.
  • Network breakdowns.
  • Training requirements.

Also read :


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